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- 911 call centers serve as the first response to emergency situations and are funded primarily through taxes and grants.


- City legislative body members may choose not to vote on various issues.

- Affordable housing programs assist low-income households with rent and home purchasing.

- Annexation allows cities to expand their boundaries to increase urban development. Specific statutes outline the requirements and procedures for annexation.

- Audits generate timely information about the city's financial position and accountability for managing public resources.


- Benefits often include retirement (i.e. pensions), health insurance, life insurance, dental insurance, and vacation, sick, and personal days as well as holidays.

- Issuing bonds allows cities the flexibility needed to complete long-term capital projects and implement short-term financial solutions.

- The city's annual budget shows the city's revenues, expenditures, program goals, and details pertinent to the financial operations for the coming year.

- Budgeting is the process of preparing and formalizing the municipal budget according to accounting standards and guidelines.


- Kentucky cities are divided into one of two classes. However, cities and their counties have certain rights and responsibilities depending on their former classification and/or city population.

- Code enforcement addresses unseemly or dangerous property conditions to enhance the living standards in a community.

- Collective bargaining entails city leaders and union representatives negotiating an agreement on working conditions.

- Community services include parks and recreation, health initiatives, public transportation, and other services.

- The wages and salaries paid to elected and appointed city officials and city staff take up a large portion of city budgets.

- Conflicts of interest occur when a city official or an employee becomes directly or indirectly interested in any contract with the city.

- A COLA is used in determining the maximum amount an elected city official can be paid. It is based on consumer price index changes as determined by the Department for Local Government. Cities may also provide COLAs to city employees.


- Cities often have to borrow to complete long-term projects. They have several attractive financing options available to them as municipalities.

- Prescription drug abuse has increased statewide, partly due to 'pill mills' which prescribe medications without medical justification. Kentucky has made resources available to help end abuse and allow you to report suspected pill mills anonymously.


- The Kentucky Constitution requires all elected city officers to be elected at general elections in even-numbered years.

- Kentucky cities spend billions of dollars on public purpose goods and services each year.


- Kentucky cities have one of three forms of government (with two exceptions), and choose their form according to their specific needs.


- General government expenditures include administrative, legal, and financial administration costs.


- Cities have the power to make independent decisions, as long as they do not conflict with state or federal law.


- Under both the Kentucky Constitution and Kentucky Revised Statutes, no person may simultaneously hold multiple governmental offices.

- Cities may levy a tax on insurance premiums. This revenue has grown to be the third largest tax source for Kentucky cities.

- Interlocal agreements allow multiple governmental units to merge operations to better serve their citizens.


- A local option sales tax (LOST) is often used as a means of raising funds for specific local or area projects.


- Also known as a transient room tax, this tourism-based tax may be levied on the rent of rooms in hotels, motels, and similar lodging.


- All business-related activities can be taxed within a city for the purpose of general revenues. These can take the form of payroll taxes, net profit taxes, and gross receipts taxes. Annual flat business licenses are also often issued by cities.

- The Open Meetings Act requires that all meetings where a quorum of the public agency is present and where any city business is discussed to be open to the public except in certain situations.

- The Open Records Act requires cities to make certain public documents available for review.

- Opportunity zones are designated areas in which investments can receive preferential federal tax treatment.

- City legislative and executive bodies establish internal policy through municipal orders.

- Cities can pass legally binding legislation through their council or commission via ordinances.


- City meetings follow procedural guidelines to organize, formalize and guide debate and decision making.

- The planning and zoning process allows cities to control developmental aspects of the city.

- The state has grown and evolved considerably over the past two centuries. Census population counts and estimates can affect everything from federal funding to legislative redistricting to applicability of certain laws.

- When making large purchases, cities must comply with the Model Procurement Code or the general bidding statute.

- Cities can levy taxes on real and tangible property (also called ad valorem taxes) for the purpose of general revenues.

- Safety-oriented expenditures for police, fire, ambulance, and dispatch services combine to form the leading general function expenditure category for cities.

- Many cities offer services such as waste and recycling collection, streets and roads, parking facilities, cemeteries, and natural resource management.

- Public-private partnerships allow cities to provide services by augmenting dwindling resources and revenues.


- City legislative bodies can only take action if a majority of its members are present.


- City legislative bodies officially provide opinions through resolutions.

- Cities of the previous fourth and fifth class may levy a tax on restaurant sales to fund local tourism commissions.

- Retirement offerings typically fall into one of two types of plans: defined benefit (usually referred to as pensions) and defined contribution. Most city retirement plans are defined benefit and are facilitated by the County Employees Retirement System (CERS), which covers hazardous and nonhazardous duty employees.

- Cities generate funds from a number of sources in order to provide public goods and services.


- Revenues generated from services such as water and sewer, waste collection, and parking fees cannot exceed the cost of providing the service beyond a reasonable amount.

- Cities provide a number of services to improve the quality of life of their residents.

- One of the primary public services provided by cities is construction and maintenance of streets and roads.


- Cities may use a financing tool known as TIF to help develop or redevelop an area and use the increased tax dollars to pay for the long-term financing.

- Taxes are one of the main revenue sources for cities and can be levied on various activities and privileges.


- Cities annually report revenues, expenditures and other financial information via the UFIR.

- Over half of Kentucky cities provide at least one utility to their citizens. Utilities are the largest expenditure category statewide.


- When an office is no longer held by someone qualified, it is considered vacant. Vacant offices can be filled through appointment or a special election.