← Older Posts
Newer Posts →

Intermittent Leave under the FMLA
Posted on October 18, 2016 by Andrea Shindlebower in Salary and Benefits, FMLA, FSLA

Weekly HR News – FMLA

Intermittent Leave under the FMLA

Employees that are entitled to FMLA must be given 12 to 26 weeks of leave depending on the qualifying event as discussed in the previous articles.    What if the employee needs intermittent time off for a qualifying event?  For example, the employee can work but needs time off for physical therapy or for doctor appointments; or if the employee or their covered family member has only been released to return to work for partial work days or work weeks. 

For these type scenarios, the employee will be entitled to intermittent leave.  Intermittent leave is FMLA leave that will be taken in separate blocks of time due to a single qualifying reason (29 C.F.R. § 825.202).  Intermittent leave is only required to be given by an employer if:

  • Medically necessary due to the serious health condition of a covered family member or the employee;
  • Medically necessary due to the serious injury or illness of a covered service member; or
  • Necessary because of a qualifying exigency.

While employees are entitled to FMLA for the birth of a child, in order to take intermittent leave during this time, the employer must have a policy in place that allows it.  The only exception to this is when the employee has a pregnancy-related illness.  In that case, the employee would be allowed to take leave intermittently based on the serious health condition requirement.

When taking intermittent leave, the employee must try to schedule the leave in a way that will be least disruptive to city operations.  If necessary, the employer may even transfer an employee to an equivalent alternative position, as long as that position offers the same pay and benefits. (29 C.F.R. § 825.204)

For additional questions regarding FMLA or other personnel related matters, contact Andrea Shindlebower Main, personnel services specialist.    


What types of events qualify for leave under the FMLA? Part 2 of 2
Posted on October 3, 2016 by Andrea Shindlebower in Salary and Benefits, FMLA, FSLA

Weekly HR News – FMLA

What types of events qualify for leave under the FMLA?  Part 2 of 2

Last week the article focused on the first three events that qualify for FMLA, which are birth or adoption of a child, care of an immediate family member with a serious health condition and recovery of series health condition by the employee.  This week we will look at the final two qualifications for leave in regards to military exigencies and care of an injured service member. 

  • The first is up to twelve (12) weeks of leave for qualifying exigencies arising out of a covered family member's active military duty.  There are eight (8) qualifying exigencies which are listed below:

(1)        Short-notice deployment, which refers to leave to address any issue that arises from the fact that a covered military member is notified of an impending call or order to active duty in support of a contingency operation seven (7) calendar days or less prior to the date of deployment. Leave for this purpose can be used for up to seven (7) calendar days beginning on the date the covered military member is notified of the impending call or order to active duty.

(2)        Military events and related activities which refers to leave to attend any official military ceremony, program, or event related to the active duty or call to active duty status or to attend certain family support or assistance programs and informational briefings.

(3)        Childcare and school activities which refers to leave to arrange for alternative childcare under certain circumstances; to provide childcare on an urgent, immediate need basis; to enroll in or transfer to a new school or daycare facility when necessary; or to attend meetings with staff at a school or daycare facility when necessary.

(4)        Financial and legal arrangements which refers to leave to make or update various financial or legal arrangements; or to act as the covered military member's representative before a federal, state, or local agency in connection with military service benefits.

(5)        Counseling which refers to leave to attend counseling (by someone other than a healthcare provider) for the employee, for the covered military member, or for a child or dependent when necessary as a result of the active duty or call to active duty status.

(6)        Rest and recuperation refers to leave to spend time with a covered military member who is on short-term, temporary, rest-and-recuperation leave during the period of deployment. Eligible employees may take up to five (5) days of leave for each instance of rest and recuperation.

(7)        Post-deployment activities refers to leave to attend arrival ceremonies, reintegration briefings and events, and any other official ceremony or program sponsored by the military for a period of 90 days following the termination of the covered military member's active duty status. This also refers to leave to address issues that arise from the death of a covered military member while on active duty status.

(8)        Additional activities refers to leave to address other events arising from the military duty provided that the employer and employee agree that such leave shall qualify as an exigency and agree to the timing and duration of such leave.

  • Up to twenty-six (26) weeks of leave in a single 12-month period to care for a covered service member recovering from a serious illness or injury.  Eligible employees are entitled to a combined total of up to 26 weeks of all types of FMLA leave. This gives an employee up to 26 weeks of leave to care for a member of the employee's family who was injured while in military service.  An eligible employee must be the spouse, child, parent or "next of kin" to "a member of the Armed Forces, including a member of the National Guard or Reserves, who is undergoing medical treatment, recuperation, or therapy, is otherwise in outpatient status, or is otherwise on the temporary disability retired list, for a serious injury or illness." 
    • Next of kin of a covered service member means the nearest blood relative other than the covered service member's spouse, parent, son, or daughter, in the following order of priority: blood relatives who have been granted legal custody of the covered service member by court decree or statutory provisions, brothers and sisters, grandparents, aunts and uncles, and first cousins, unless the covered service member has specifically designated in writing another blood relative as his or her nearest blood relative for purposes of military caregiver leave under the FMLA. When no such designation is made, and there are multiple family members with the same level of relationship to the covered service member, all such family members shall be considered the covered service member's next of kin and may take FMLA leave to provide care to the covered service member, either consecutively or simultaneously. When such designation has been made, the designated individual shall be deemed to be the covered service member's only next of kin. 
    • "Serious injury or illness" is defined as "an injury or illness incurred by the member in line of duty on active duty in the Armed Forces that may render the member medically unfit to perform the duties of the member's office, grade, rank, or rating." 

The 26 weeks of leave available under this new provision are not in addition to the previous 12 weeks of leave under the FMLA.  An employee that uses 12 weeks of FMLA leave for another reason in one 12-month period would then only have 14 weeks of leave to care for an injured service member.   For purposes of calculating leave entitlement, the regulation provides that the single twelve month period "begins on the first day the eligible employee takes FMLA leave to care for the covered service member" regardless of the method used by the employer to determine the employee's twelve workweeks of leave entitlement for other FMLA qualifying reasons.

For additional questions regarding FMLA or other personnel related matters, contact Andrea Shindlebower, Personnel Services Specialist.    


What types of events qualify for leave under the FMLA? Part 1 of 2
Posted on September 21, 2016 by Andrea Shindlebower in Salary and Benefits, FMLA, FSLA

Weekly HR News – FMLA

What types of events qualify for leave under the FMLA? Part 1 of 2

Last week we looked at what is FMLA and does it apply to your city.  If FMLA does apply to your city you need to understand the five events that will qualify an employee for this type of leave.  For this article I am going to focus on the three that are not military related and next week we will look at the final two. The first three qualifying events are:

  • The birth or adoption of a child.  This applies to both male and female employees as long as the child is under the age of 18 or is incapable of self-care because of a disability.  The entitlement to leave expires twelve (12) months from the date of birth or placement of the child. However, if both parents work for the same employer, they must split the twelve (12) week allotment between them.
  • The care of an immediate family member with a "serious health condition."  Family members include a child, spouse or parent.  The term "child" can include someone other than the employee's offspring if the employee stands in the place of a parent. Likewise, "parent" includes any person who stood in the place of a parent to the employee when the employee was a child.  Finally, in 2015, the Department of Labor broadened the definition of spouse under the FMLA so that eligible employees in legal same-sex marriages are able to care for their spouse regardless of where they live. More information can be found on this in the previous article entitled Changes to FMLA Effective March 27 Regarding Definition of Spouse
  • Recovery from an employee's own "serious health condition."  The employee must be unable to perform the essential functions of the job. 
    • The term "serious health condition" for purposes of FMLA is defined as any period of incapacity that involves:
      • Inpatient care; or one night in hospital;
      • Three (3) or more absences coupled with two (2) or more visits to a healthcare provider that occur within thirty (30) days of the beginning of the period of incapacity and the first visit to the healthcare provider takes place within seven (7) days of the first day of incapacity; or more than three (3) consecutive, full calendar days of incapacity plus a "regimen of continuing treatment." The new regulations clarify here also that the first visit to the healthcare provider must take place within seven (7) days of the first day of incapacity. (Example of regimen of continuing treatment would be physical therapy);
      • Pregnancy or prenatal care;
      • Chronic serious health condition requiring periodic visits (at least two (2) visits per year) to a healthcare provider;
      • A condition requiring permanent or long-term incapacity which may not be responsive to treatment and requires continued supervision of a healthcare provider; or
      • Receiving or recovering from multiple treatments for restorative surgery after an injury or for a condition likely to result in more than three (3) days incapacity without such treatments.

For additional questions regarding FMLA or other personnel related matters, contact Andrea Shindlebower, Personnel Services Specialist.    


What is the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)? Does my city have to provide FMLA?
Posted on September 1, 2016 by Andrea Shindlebower in Salary and Benefits, FMLA, FSLA

Weekly HR News – FMLA

What is the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)? Does my city have to provide FMLA?

The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) is a federal law that went into effect in 1993 (29 U.S.C. § 2601-2654).  Under the FMLA, eligible employees are entitled to 12 weeks or 26 weeks of unpaid leave for certain qualifying events, which I will expand on over the next two weeks.

All public entities, including cities, are obligated to provide FMLA. 

Does this mean that all city employees are eligible to take FMLA? 

The answer to that is NO.  In order for an employee to be eligible for FMLA, the employee must meet the following requirements:

  • work at a facility with 50 or more employees within a 75 mile radius;
  • the employee must have been employed by the city for at least 12 months within the past seven years prior to the leave, unless the break in service is due to an employee’s fulfillment of military obligations; and
  • the employee must have worked for at least 1,250 hours in the 12-month period immediately preceding the date the FMLA leave begins (29 C.F.R. 825.108(d)).  

So what is the city required to do if it has no eligible employees? 

The only requirement is to post the federal FMLA poster in a conspicuous place.  The required poster and related information is provided by the Department of Labor (DOL) and can be found at http://www.dol.gov/compliance/guide/FMLA.htm#RRN.   The DOL states “All covered employers are required to display and keep on display a poster explaining the provisions of the FMLA and telling employees how to file a complaint with the Wage and Hour Division of violations of the Act. The poster must be displayed prominently where employees and applicants for employment can see it. The poster and all the text must be large enough to be easily read and contain fully legible text. Covered employers must display the poster even if no employees are eligible for FMLA leave.”

NOTE: Even if the city has no employees eligible for FMLA, keep in mind that an ADA accommodation in the form of leave time may be applicable if your city has 8 or more employees. 

So what is the city required to do if it does have eligible employees? 

If the city does have eligible employees, it must, in addition to the required poster, provide notices to eligible employees.  This notice can be in the form of the written policy, within your employee handbook. This will suffice as long as you have an acknowledgement signed by the employee that they received the handbook.  Specifically the DOL states that “If a covered employer has any eligible employees, it must also provide general notice to each employee by including the notice in employee handbooks or other written guidance to employees concerning benefits or leave rights if such written materials exist.” 

What if a city that has no eligible employees wants to provide FMLA?

Keep in mind that even if your city is not required to provide FMLA, the city can choose to offer unpaid leave.  This would be a personnel policy decision that the city would make based on whether or not the city can afford to offer this type of leave as an employee benefit and if the city would have the employee coverage required in the event that someone needed to use the leave.    

Also important to note, is that even if the city does not have any eligible employees, but there is an FMLA policy in the current employee handbook, you must follow it until removed from the handbook.  In addition to what may be in your handbook, you must also look at past practice. If the city has offered FMLA or a similar leave to employees in the past you may have to offer the leave to current employees unless you implement a policy that states otherwise.  If this is the case be certain to discuss with your city attorney as to the best way to handle this situation. 

For questions on FMLA or other personnel related matters, contact Personnel Services Specialist Andrea Shindlebower Main.


REMINDER: New FLSA Poster Should Now be Displayed.

Weekly HR News – FLSA

Employment Law Posters – NEW FLSA Poster

The Wage and Hour Division of the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) has released a revised Fair Labors Standards Act (FLSA) poster effective July 2016.  Cities should be sure to update their current FLSA poster with the new poster immediately.  The effective date of July 2016 is noted in the lower right corner. 

In regards to all federal posters, the DOL website provides assistance for employers in deciding which federal posters are required, and provides those posters for free.  State-required posters and notices can also be printed at no cost from the following websites:



Kentucky League of Cities (KLC) strives to notify cities of new poster requirements and changes as they occur; however, all city employers should check the above links and the federal and state Department of Labor websites frequently as the statutory laws and federal regulations can change. 

Also, it is important to note that the regulations require that any required posters be readily viewable "in conspicuous places" and "in every establishment" in which employees are employed.

For questions on wage and hour issues or other personnel matters, contact KLC Personnel Services Specialist Andrea Shindlebower Main.    


Tracking Time for the Exempt Employee
Posted on August 4, 2016 by Andrea Shindlebower in Employee Payments/Reimbursements

Weekly HR News – FLSA

Tracking Time for the Exempt Employee

According to the Federal Labor Standards Act (FLSA), nonexempt (hourly) employees must be paid a minimum wage, as well as time and one-half their regular rate for all hours worked over 40 in a defined work week. Whereas, exempt employees are paid on a salary basis and based on other qualifying reasons, are exempt from overtime wages even if they work more than the designated 40 hours in a defined work week.

Hopefully your city has determined, or is working on determining, who is and who is not exempt from overtime under the new FLSA laws come December 1st.  If you need assistance review the previous article on this subject and plan to attend the KLC Conference session on the new FLSA changes this October.   

One question that always comes up in regards to exempt employees is whether or not the employer can actually track the time worked by exempt employees?  The answer to that is a confusing yes and no. 

So, let’s look at what an employer can and can’t do.  First, there is nothing that prevents an employer from gathering in and out times, even if the employee is exempt. The problem would come up if the employer actually uses it to determine hours worked for payroll purposes, as exempt employees are not paid based on hours worked. And if tracking is used it must be for a legitimate reason other than calculating pay and the employee cannot be disciplined for failing to use the tracking method. 

Some legitimate reasons include the allowance of comp time for exempt employees; when an employer is trying to determine the need for an additional employee; or the ability to make certain that all employees are following the schedule as set out in the personnel policy.  One other important reason is in regards to the avoidance of the issues that may come from the misclassification of employees as exempt.  If a mistake is made in classification (stating that an employee is exempt when really they should be non-exempt) and the employer has records of all hours worked the calculation of any overtime will not be as complex.  No matter what the reason NEVER use tracking to calculate the exempt employees pay.

Also important to note is that employers should track time for nonexempt and exempt employees differently. Nonexempt employees’ time worked is calculated by the hour. Calculating exempt employees’ time can be a bit more challenging. This can be done in different ways. Some employers track the days worked by exempt employees, yet do not track hours. Other employers track time worked by applying any vacation or sick leave for any hours not worked. In other words, the assumption is made that an exempt employee will be paid a regular salary unless any vacation or sick leave is utilized. This way, an employer can correctly record the time an exempt employee has worked, calculate any vacation time or sick leave that was used, while still avoiding tracking the exempt employee by the hour.

There are many Department of Labor Opinion Letters as well as court cases that give examples of what is and is not acceptable.  In Douglas v. Argo-Tech Corp., (6th Cir. 1997) the fact that an employee used a time clock did not make him a non-exempt employee.  The exempt status was legally based on the administrative exemption.  The need for tracking was based on the fact that the employer was required as a government contractor to keep records of the hours of all the employees no matter if they were exempt or non-exempt.  Unlike the non-exempt employees his salary was not based upon the time clock hours, he was not forced to use the time clock and there was no discipline for failing to use it. 

In a second case Talbert v. American Risk Ins. Co., Inc. the courts examined the ability to track time for compensatory leave.  They stated that the FLSA provision that authorized governmental employers to provide compensatory time off in lieu of payment of overtime compensation to non-exempt employees did not prohibit private employers from using compensatory time for exempt, salaried employees, as long as employer's use of compensatory time did not result in any improper deductions from employees' salary.  

As you can see from the information above, that although it can be done, tracking of an exempt employee’s time is a complex matter that requires serious thought and planning before implementation.  If an employer is going to track, the best practice is to have a written policy to notify employees of any established requirements. The written policy would state the requirement, (i.e. to record and track hours for compensatory time) as well as the method used for recording hours and to specifically state that this information will not be used to calculate payroll.

For questions on wage and hour issues or other personnel matters, contact Andrea Shindlebower Main with the KLC Legal Department.



← Older Posts
Newer Posts →